Entries by Yunqing Yu

OsKNAT7 bridges secondary cell wall formation and cell growth regulation

The plant cell wall is a complex structure composed of cellulose embedded in a matrix of polysaccharides (hemicellulose and pectin), phenolic compounds and proteins. The primary cell wall is a thin layer formed in growing cells and is present ubiquitously, whereas the secondary cell wall is a rigid and thick structure formed after cell growth […]

Liguleless1, a conserved gene regulating leaf angle and a target for yield improvement in wheat

A major challenge in modern agriculture is to increase crop yield with diminishing agricultural land to feed the fast-growing global population. The erect leaf phenotype is a highly desirable trait that allows for higher planting density and maximizes light interception capacity and thus increases photosynthetic efficiency and crop yield (Donald, 1968). In cereal crops, which […]

New interacting partners of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE in regulation of plant development

Organ boundaries are junctions that separate initiating lateral organs from the meristem or other plant parts. Cells at the boundary often exhibit slow growth rates and morphology distinct from that of the surrounding cells, and their development are controlled by complex gene networks. Lateral organ boundary marker genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 are two closely […]

Diverse strategies coping with winter in barley and its relatives

The Poaceae is one of the largest plant families in angiosperms, containing more than 12,000 grass species, which are classified into two major clades: PACMAD (Panicoideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, Aristidoideae and Danthonioideae) and BOP (Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae and Pooideae) (Fig. 1) (Kellogg, 2015). The Poaceae originally evolved in warm moist habitats, and further successfully adapted to […]

Prohibitin shuttles between mitochondria and the nucleus to control genome stability during the cell cycle

The prohibitin (PHB) protein family is highly conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes (Van Aken et al., 2010). Initially identified as a tumor suppressor in rat liver, PHBs in animals are localized in various cell compartments, including mitochondria, nuclei, and plasma membranes, and function as scaffold proteins in many signaling pathways, including those underlying cell proliferation, […]

Cellulose Synthase Stoichiometry Varies among Species and Tissues

Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is an important structural component of the primary and secondary cell wall of plant cells. It is also found in animals (tunicates), oomycetes, and bacteria (Kumar and Turner, 2015). Besides providing support and rigidity in living organisms, cellulose has significant economic value, as it is commonly used for […]

A Novel Role of Ring Chromosomes as Evolutionary Drivers of Herbicide Resistance

In eukaryotes, chromosomes are linear structures; in contrast, a ring-shaped chromosome is a rare structure that results from the fusion of broken ends of linear chromosomes. Ring chromosomes may be induced by radiation or may occur spontaneously. In humans, ring chromosomes occur in approximately 1:50,000 embryos, and often are associated with growth deficiency and disease. […]