Entries by Magdalena Julkowska

Control of retrograde signaling by rapid turnover of GENOMES UNCOUPLED 1 (Plant Physiol.)

Communication between chloroplast and the nucleus is crucial to accomodate changes in the environment as well as regulate development of the chloroplast itself. Five GENOMES UNCOUPLED (GUN2 to -6) genes were previously described to regulate plastid-to-nucleus communication by affecting the synthesis of tetrapyrrole, constituting the active core of chlorophyll. GUN1 does not affect tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. […]

Genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza (Nature Genetics)

In order to use wild rice relatives for future crop improvement, the differences and similarities between wild and domesticated genomes need to be understood. Stein and colleagues sequenced the genomes of two domesticated varieties and seven wild species, unraveling 15 million years of evolutionary history driven by natural selection and human domestication. The diversity of […]

Chemical hijacking of auxin signaling with an engineered auxin–TIR1 pair ($) (Nature Chemical Biology)

Gene redundancy and/or developmental defects of higher order mutants make it hard to study the role of individual components of auxin signaling. Structural biology approach can provide a detour that circumvents endogenous auxin signaling. Removing of the phenyl moiety of F79 in the auxin receptor TIR1 introduces a concavity that disables auxin binding. However, this […]

Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

Biology is a noisy act, as the expression of the same gene in the cells of the same tissue differs. This noise can be divided into intrinsic noise, due to inherent stochasticity of molecular processes, and extrinsic noise, indicating differences between the neighboring cells. Schultheiß Araújo and colleagues used NLS-YFP / -CFP driven by 35S […]

Verification of Arabidopsis stock collections using SNPmatch, a tool for genotyping high-plexed samples

Experiments using large germplasm collections are prone to contamination. With dropping sequencing costs, it becomes easier to validate the genotype using minimal sequencing coverage. Pisupati and colleagues developed an open-source python pipeline, called SNPmatch, allowing identification of 930 Arabidopsis accessions from 1001 Genomes panel, based on 2,000 SNPs obtained by sequencing with minimal genome coverage. […]

Review: On the selectivity, specificity and signaling potential of long-distance movement of messenger RNA

Regulation of transcription occurs at the cell-type specific level, but transcribed messenger RNA is mobile and can move between tissues through plant vasculature, serving as a long distance messenger. Many mRNA molecules have been identified in the phloem sap, suggesting that mRNA transport goes through plasmodesmata from companion cells into the phloem sieve elements. Transport […]

VASCULATURE COMPLEXITY AND CONNECTIVITY required for bilateral symmetry but not for dorsoventrality in Arabidopsis leaves

The formation of the lobes at the Arabidopsis leaf margin are due to differences in local auxin accumulation, coordinated by auxin efflux carrier (PIN1) and transcriptional regulator (CUC2), but the molecular mechanisms acting upstream are not yet understood. Among viable leaf shape mutants, Wilson-Sanchez and colleagues identified that mutation of VASCULATURE COMPLEXITY AND CONNECTIVITY (VCC), […]

Arabidopsis DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 regulates cell wall composition and axial growth in the inflorescence stem

Plants can reach impressive heights, thanks to the mechanical stability provided by the cell walls. The required strength is ensured by coordination of cell wall deposition and cell expansion. Plant-specific calpain (DEK1) regulates axial stem growth, as lines overexpressing the calpain domain develop shorter stems than wild-type plants, while the opposite was observed for amiRNA […]

Review: Diffuse growth of plant cell walls

In order for a cell to expand, its volume needs to increase and the cell wall needs to loosen up. There are multiple processes resulting in cell wall loosening, but not all of them result in extension. Cosgrove differentiates different structural, mechanical and physiocochemical processes that lead to cell wall loosening. The interaction between cellulose […]