Entries by Peter Minorsky

The Functions of Retinoblastoma-Related Proteins in Rice

RETINOBLASTOMA was originally identified as a tumor suppressor gene in animals. A basic and core function of its protein is to control cell proliferation via regulating cell cycle entry. RB protein is also involved in regulating cell differentiation and organ specification. In plants, RBR (RB-Related) genes are widely distributed. The mechanism of controlling the cell […]

Jasmonic Acid and High Light and Heat Stress

Plants often experience high light (HL) intensities in the field, many times in conjunction with elevated temperatures. Such conditions are a serious threat to agriculture production, because photosynthesis is highly sensitive to both HL intensities and high-temperature stress. During HL stress, the reaction centers become saturated and the excess excitation energy can become harmful because […]

Glyphosate Resistance in Barnyard Grass

Glyphosate is the world’s most commonly used herbicide, owing to its high efficacy, broad spectrum, and systemic mode of action. Most plant species cannot significantly metabolize glyphosate, which is a major factor contributing to its lethality in plants. However, the widespread adoption of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops from 1996 onwards imposed very high glyphosate selection pressure […]

Ray Parenchymal Cells Contribute to Lignification

In conifers such as Norway spruce (Picea abies), lignin is a major cell wall constituent of secondary xylem (wood), forming approximately 27% of the dry weight. Lignin enhances the structural stability of wood as well as water transport through it. Lignification encompasses many steps, starting with the biosynthesis of monolignols in the cytosol and their […]

Plasmodesmatal Transport is Regulated by the Circadian Clock

Plasmodesmata (PD) are membrane-bound tunnels that connect the cytosols of neighboring plant cells. The rate of PD transport between cells changes during the course of plant development. Forward genetic screens to identify factors controlling transport through PD have repeatedly revealed that chloroplasts influence PD transport. This has led to a paradigm shift, focusing less on […]

Phytochrome-Interacting Factors and Tomato Qualities

Phytochromes (PHYs) are red/far-red light photoreceptors that are activated by light and deactivated by dark and high temperature. Upon light exposure, PHYs are translocated into the nucleus, where they interact with PHY-INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) and induce the degradation of these transcription factors. Although the manipulation of light signals bears a great potential to influence fruit […]

Circadian Clock Gene Affects Aphid Feeding

Phloem sap-feeding aphids inflict plant damage by direct feeding and by acting as a vector for plant disease transmission. Their highly specialized stylets reach the phloem sieve elements, allowing aphids to extract plant photoassimilates without consuming structural tissues. Probing and feeding by aphids elicits plant defense responses, leading to retarded aphid development, reduced aphid survival […]