Entries by Peter Minorsky

Cell-Specific Light Response in C4 Photosynthesis

In C4 species, the expression of photosynthesis genes is partitioned such that leaf mesophyll and bundle sheath cells accumulate different components of the photosynthetic pathway. The expression of nucleus-encoded photosynthesis genes is modulated both by photoreceptor activity and by a network of light-responsive transcription factors. Different wavelengths of light also influence post-transcriptional regulation of gene […]

The Fate of Acetate During Hypoxia

Under hypoxia, Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (ACS), an enzyme that synthesizes acetyl CoA, recovers carbon that would otherwise be lost from the plant as ethanol. Plastid-localized ACS metabolizes cellular acetate and contributes to the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and Leu. On the other hand, a peroxisome-localized enzyme ACETATE NON-UTILIZING1 (ACN1) ACN1 enables the incorporation of […]

Autophagy Maintains Zinc Pools under Zinc Deficiency

Zinc (Zn) is a metallic element that is essential for all living organisms. Zn serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor in a large number of enzymes including alcohol dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and regulatory proteins such as transcription factors containing Z-finger domains. Accordingly, Zn deficiency can be a serious agricultural problem. Autophagy, a major […]

MYB Transcription Factors Regulate Secondary Metabolism

Secondary cell walls play important roles in providing long-distance water transport, mechanical support, and plant defense. The main components of secondary cell walls are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The synthesis of lignin monomers involves the phenylpropanoid pathway, which is also shared by many other metabolites such as suberin, flavonoids, tannins, and lignans. The aromatic amino […]

Temperature Signaling in Guard Cells

The elucidation of plant temperature signaling networks is confounded by the fact that commonly measured physiological outputs of temperature change (e.g., stem elongation and flowering time) can be temporally and spatially distant from the temperature perception event, requiring intercellular, intertissue, and interorgan signaling networks. To address this constraint, Kostaki et al. (doi.org/10.1104/pp.19.01528) have used the […]

Cold-Induced Proteomic Changes in the Chloroplast Envelope

As a cold-hardy species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is a useful model for the investigation of the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying cold acclimation in plants. Chloroplasts harbor the enzymatic machinery required for photosynthetic CO2 fixation, starch production, nitrite and sulfate reduction, and amino acid and fatty acid biosynthesis. To fulfill all these functions, chloroplasts must […]

Shared Genetic Control of Root Traits across Taxa

Root system architecture (RSA) plays a crucial role in plant productivity and tolerance to environmental stresses. The maize (Zea mays) root system, composed of the embryonic primary root and variable numbers of seminal roots, as well as postembryonic shoot-borne and lateral roots, is both different and more complex than the model plant Arabidopsis. [The sorghum […]

The Nuclear Envelope and Stomatal Dynamics

Eukaryotic nuclei are double membrane-bound organelles with distinct inner nuclear membranes (INM) and outer nuclear membranes (ONM). The site where the INM and ONM meet forms the nuclear pore, where nucleocytoplasmic transport occurs. Spanning the INM and the ONM are protein complexes known as “linkers of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC).” LINC complexes contribute to […]