Entries by Peter Minorsky

Transcription Factors and Apple Drought Tolerance

Water deficit is one of the main limiting factors in apple (Malus × domestica) cultivation. Root architecture plays an important role in the drought tolerance of plants. Due to the difficulties associated with the visualization of root systems, however, there is currently a poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the root architecture of […]

Chloroplast Damage Triggers Autophagy

Under normal growth conditions, there is a constitutive or basal level of autophagy in plant cells that helps to recycle unnecessary cell contents. Autophagy provides essential building blocks (e.g. amino acids and fatty acids) and energy sources that promote cell homeostasis and survival. Autophagy is mediated by autophagy-related (ATG) genes, which have been identified in […]

A SNARE Protein that Regulates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase activity

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant drought responses. Previous studies have indicated that ABA inhibits plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM H+-ATPase) activity, and the resultant decrease in PM H+-ATPase activity promotes stomatal closure under drought stress, thereby reducing water loss. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Based […]

Chloroplast Accumulation Enhances Photosynthesis and Biomass Production

Light-induced chloroplast movement is one of the most important responses for utilization of photosynthetic light. Chloroplasts move toward weak light-irradiated areas to efficiently absorb light (the accumulation response), whereas they move away from excess light to avoid photodamage (the avoidance response). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the accumulation response is regulated by phototropin1 (phot1) and photoropin2 (phot2), […]

A Tapetal Boric Acid Channel Involved in Pollen Cell Wall Formation

Boron (B) is an essential plant micronutrient that plays a major role in cell wall structure and function by providing cross-linking of the rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) pectin component of the cell wall. Under normal pH conditions, B is found principally as boric acid. Although boric acid permeates lipid bilayers, it exhibits limited systemic mobility within […]

RNA Mobility and the Regulation of Flowering

In addition to hormones, proteins, and metabolites, many plants use mRNAs as mobile molecules for long-distance communication. It has been demonstrated that many mobile mRNAs are trafficked through phloem, probably by forming an RNA-protein complex to allow the stable translocation of mRNA molecules. Transcriptome profiling of phloem sap and heterografting experiments have identified several thousand […]

Red Light and the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Guard Cells

Stomatal opening is stimulated by light, including blue and red light. Blue light-induced stomatal opening is fairly well understood: it is mediated by blue-light photoreceptor phototropins (phot1 and phot2). Blue light activates the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase via phosphorylation of its penultimate C-terminal residue. In addition, blue light induces starch degradation, resulting in the accumulation […]

Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence 


Senescence in plants is a prelude to cell or organ death. The metabolites and macromolecules released during senescence are salvaged by the plant for use elsewhere. Generally, senescence occurs prior to programmed cell death (PCD), since the characteristic leaf yellowing can be reversed while PCD is a terminal, irreversible program. Programmed cell death in plants […]