Entries by Peter Minorsky

Trehalose-6-Phosphate and Reproductive Resource Allocation in Maize

Flowering is a developmental stage that is particularly sensitive to drought; restriction of water at this time can decrease seed set, final seed number, and harvested seed yield. Kernel abortion during drought at flowering can be alleviated by supplying Suc to reproductive tissue. Consequently, Suc metabolism in reproductive tissue has been proposed as a target […]

Systemic RNA Silencing in Tobacco

gene RNA silencing is a cellular gene regulatory mechanism that is conserved across fungal, plant, and animal kingdoms. Through sequence-specific targeting, RNA silencing can degrade mRNA for posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or modify related DNA for transcriptional gene silencing. RNA silencing can spread from cell to cell and over long distances in animals and plants. […]

Transcriptome Studies of Deepwater Rice

Rice (Oryza sativa) paddies frequently become submerged during the rainy season in some parts of South and Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, India, Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Submergence stress is harmful to plants. In addition to causing O2– and CO2-deficient conditions by restricting environmental gas exchange, submergence reduces the light available for photosynthesis, perturbs cellular energy […]

Apple Hexokinase Mediates Response to Salinity Stress

Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, low temperature, and flooding usually lead to sugar accumulation. It has been reported that the accumulation of Glc, Suc, and Fru under high salinity plays an important role in carbon storage, osmotic regulation, and homeostasis, as well as scavenging of free radicals. However, the molecular mechanism by which Glc […]

Brassinosteroids and Hydrotropism

Soil water availability is a major constraint for crop growth throughout the world. Hydrotropism, the bending of roots in response to moisture gradients, enables plants to take better advantage of available soil water. In contrast to gravitropism and phototropism which have been studied extensively, there are few studies on the mechanisms underlying hydrotropism, particularly at […]

Mycorrhiza-Triggered Networks in Leaves

One effect of mycorrhizal fungi is to stimulate the plant immune system, leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR). Thus, mycorrhizal fungi influence the interactions between plants and aboveground herbivores. The molecular mechanisms underlying these types of beneficial microbe-plant interactions have mostly been studied in herbaceous plants. In contrast, little is known concerning whether mycorrhizae mitigate […]

FERONIA-RALF and G Proteins in Guard Cell Response

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins are composed of Ga, Gb, and Gg subunits and function as molecular switches in signal transduction. In Arabidopsis, there is one canonical Ga (GPA1), three extra-large Ga (XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3), one Gb (AGB1), and three Gg (AGG1 to 3) subunits. Despite the limited types of G protein subunits in […]

Mitochondria Affect Photosynthetic Electron Transport

Photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms rely on two organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria, for the synthesis of the molecules NAD(P)H and ATP that fuel their metabolism. These two organelles are commonly thought of as two separate entities but the results of Larosa et al. (10.1104/pp.17.01249) suggest the extent of communication between these two organelles may be underappreciated. The […]

Herbicide Resistance in Common Waterhemp

The herbicide glyphosate is widely used in agriculture, especially on glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic crops. The widespread adoption of GR crops across the globe and an overreliance on glyphosate as a single means of weed control has spawned many GR weed species. Glyphosate inhibits the 5-enopyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme of the shikimate pathway, resulting in a […]