Entries by Peter Minorsky

Pinstatic Acid: a Novel Modulator of PIN Trafficking

The polar subcellular localization of the auxin efflux machinery determines the directionality of auxin flow in plants. In particular, the dynamics of polar localization of PIN proteins regulates the rate and direction of cellular auxin export and this ultimately determines auxin gradients in the tissue. Therefore, the regulatory machinery of the polarity and abundance of […]

A Role for Mitochondrial Fission in Pollen Growth

The tapetum is the innermost layer of the anther and encloses the locule wherein pollen develops. In addition to supplying nutrients for pollen growth, the tapetum synthesizes and transfers pollen outer wall precursors for the formation of the pollen outer wall. To synthesize, secrete, and transfer materials for pollen growth, the tapetum requires an abundant […]

PINOID Is Required for Formation of the Stigma and Style in Rice

In rice (Oryza sativa), both the male and female floral organs are produced in the same flower: thus, only rarely do rice grains result from cross-pollination. Since cross-pollination is difficult in rice so, too, is the production of hybrid seed. Plants with defective stigmas may have commercial value in the production of such hybrids. Despite […]

A SNARE Protein Involved in H+-ATPase Trafficking

Membrane proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and are trafficked through the Golgi, from which they are sorted to the plasma membrane, tonoplast, or other target membranes. In all eukaryotes, secretory traffic to the plasma membrane is mediated by SNARE proteins. In Arabidopsis, three Qa-SNAREs, commonly referred to as syntaxins, namely SYP121 (Syntaxin of […]

Insights into Thermonastic Leaf Movements

Many plant species actively reorient their organs in response to dynamic environmental conditions. Petiole hyponasty is an upward movement of petioles driven by a higher rate of cell expansion on the lower (abaxial) compared with the upper (adaxial) side. Hyponasty is common among rosette species facing environmental stresses such as flooding, proximity of neighbors or […]

A Tonoplast Calcineurin B-Like Protein and Stomatal Movement

SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) comprise a highly conserved superfamily of proteins in all eukaryotic cells and play important roles in membrane fusion events involved in the delivery of membranes, proteins, and soluble cargos. SNARES form a core complex to bring vesicle and target membrane surfaces together, thereby driving secretion as well as […]

Systems Biology of Deetiolation

Upon exposure to light, many leaf and stem cells acquire photosynthetic competence by converting pale etioplasts into green chloroplasts. Deetiolation involves the concerted and synchronized activity of a highly complex biogenesis program. Thylakoid membranes must develop from disassembling prolamellar bodies and prothylakoids and from newly synthesized lipids. Moreover, large protein complexes containing dozens of protein […]

Effects of Isoprene on Plant Growth

Abiotic stress conditions such as drought and salt stress increase isoprene synthesis and emission in many plant species. The carbon and energy cost of isoprene production has been found to vary depending on the plant species and environmental conditions. For example, trees that normally produce isoprene, such as eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), consume about 2%, […]