Recent Posts

The Functions of Retinoblastoma-Related Proteins in Rice

RETINOBLASTOMA was originally identified as a tumor suppressor gene in animals. A basic and core function of its protein is to control cell proliferation via regulating cell cycle entry. RB protein is also involved in regulating cell differentiation and organ specification. In plants, RBR (RB-Related)…

Jasmonic Acid and High Light and Heat Stress

Plants often experience high light (HL) intensities in the field, many times in conjunction with elevated temperatures. Such conditions are a serious threat to agriculture production, because photosynthesis is highly sensitive to both HL intensities and high-temperature stress. During HL stress, the…

Glyphosate Resistance in Barnyard Grass

Glyphosate is the world’s most commonly used herbicide, owing to its high efficacy, broad spectrum, and systemic mode of action. Most plant species cannot significantly metabolize glyphosate, which is a major factor contributing to its lethality in plants. However, the widespread adoption of glyphosate-tolerant…

Plant Calmodulin-Dependent NAD+ Kinase

A common plant response to a variety of stresses is an influx of calcium (Ca2+) ions followed by an apoplastic burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This ROS burst is generated by Ca2+-dependent plasma membrane NADPH oxidases. A rapid increase in the NADP(H) pool size may be required to sustain the…

Ray Parenchymal Cells Contribute to Lignification

In conifers such as Norway spruce (Picea abies), lignin is a major cell wall constituent of secondary xylem (wood), forming approximately 27% of the dry weight. Lignin enhances the structural stability of wood as well as water transport through it. Lignification encompasses many steps, starting with…

Plasmodesmatal Transport is Regulated by the Circadian Clock

Plasmodesmata (PD) are membrane-bound tunnels that connect the cytosols of neighboring plant cells. The rate of PD transport between cells changes during the course of plant development. Forward genetic screens to identify factors controlling transport through PD have repeatedly revealed that chloroplasts…

Phytochrome-Interacting Factors and Tomato Qualities

Phytochromes (PHYs) are red/far-red light photoreceptors that are activated by light and deactivated by dark and high temperature. Upon light exposure, PHYs are translocated into the nucleus, where they interact with PHY-INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) and induce the degradation of these transcription factors.…

Insights into Esca Grape Vine Disease

Esca is a fungal vascular disease of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) that negatively impacts grape yield and the wine industry. Esca is characterized by three main symptoms: leaf scorch, trunk necrosis, and a colored stripe along the vasculature. The fungi most strongly associated with esca wood necrosis…

Circadian Clock Gene Affects Aphid Feeding

Phloem sap-feeding aphids inflict plant damage by direct feeding and by acting as a vector for plant disease transmission. Their highly specialized stylets reach the phloem sieve elements, allowing aphids to extract plant photoassimilates without consuming structural tissues. Probing and feeding by aphids…