Review: Plasmodesmata, pores between cells ($)

plasmodesmataThe cytosol of most plant cells are connected by plasmodesmata, tiny channels that form bridges between adjoining cells (guard cells notably lack plasmodesmatal connections). Water, ions, small molecules, proteins and viruses can move through plasmodesmata. Upon wounding or infection, plasmodesmatal channels are sealed off by callose (polysaccharide) deposition. Brunkard and Zambryski review the developmental physiological and immunological roles of plasmodesmata. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10.1016/j.pbi.2016.11.007