Lynn GL Richardson, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48843 During germination and early seedling establishment, embryos rely on stored energy for growth and cellular maintenance until photoautotrophic growth takes over. Proteins and lipids make up most of the energy-rich stores in the embryo, and in Arabidopsis thaliana, lipids can comprise up to 40% of […]
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Entries by Lynn GL Richardson
Lynn GL Richardson Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 Positive strand (+) RNA viruses act as their own messengers, encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that can replicate their sense RNA genome. This allows (+)RNA viruses to replicate outside the nucleus, within replication complexes formed from host organelle membranes often called […]
By Lynn GL Richardson The acid-growth theory was proposed over 40 years ago based on early observations that low apoplastic pH promotes growth in a pathway involving the plant hormone auxin (Rayle and Cleland, 1992; Hager, 2003; Arsuffi and Braybrook, 2018). Since this discovery, a clearer understanding of the mechanism behind acid growth and its […]
Vesicle trafficking is indispensable, playing critical roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses, and trafficking to the plasma membrane is an important contributor to cell expansion and cell wall remodeling (reviewed in Lipka et al., 2007; Grefen and Blatt, 2008). Vesicle budding, trafficking and fusion are tightly regulated to ensure vesicles are targeted to […]