Entries by Hanna Horak

Zones of Defense? SA Receptors Have it Under Control

The constant evolutionary arms race with pathogens has equipped plants with a layered immune system. As the first line of defense, membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors perceive microbe-associated molecular patterns and activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). In parallel, R proteins – mainly nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors – perceive effectors secreted by pathogens to suppress plant defense responses, […]

Tracking the Courier: In Planta Imaging of NADH/NAD+ Ratios with a Genetically Encoded Biosensor

The movement of electrons between molecules and organelles via redox reactions is a cornerstone of cellular metabolism. Electron carriers such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form NADP mediate reduction or oxidation reactions via their own conversion between reduced [NAD(P)H] and oxidized [NAD(P)+] forms. Altered NAD levels lead to impaired plant development and […]

How COR27 and COR28 Promote Hypocotyl Growth: Bind to COP1 And Suppress HY5 Activity

Seedling growth and development rely on the successful integration of information from external signals, such as light and temperature, and endogenous processes, such as the rhythmic ticking of the circadian clock. Together, these signaling pathways tune hypocotyl elongation to allow seedlings to escape from the dark soil and reach the bright soil surface, followed by […]

Back to where it came from: chloroplast expression of both Rubisco subunits helps functional enzyme analysis

Rubisco catalyzes the key carboxylation step in photosynthetic CO2 fixation and is probably the most abundant protein on Earth. The enzyme is famous for inefficient catalysis and the habit of binding oxygen instead of CO2 in one out of every four binding events, leading to photorespiration reactions that release fixed CO2 and consume energy (Sharkey, […]

Defense, fast and slow: activation of different MAPK pathways in response to wounding

In a world full of herbivores and mechanical stresses, the ability to sense and respond to wounding is crucial for plants, as injuries open doors for phytopathogen entry and allow uncontrolled evaporation. Wounding triggers local and systemic defenses that heal injuries, make plants taste unpleasant or toxic for herbivores or attract their natural enemies, and […]