Review: Mechanisms regulating PIF transcription factor activity at the protein level ($) (Physiol. Plant.)

Absorption of red and far-red light by phytochromes dramatically affects plant development, and many of these effects are mediated by the PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR) family of transcription factors. Favero reviews the many ways that PIF activity is regulated beyond through their interactions with phytochrome. These include post-translational modifications leading to protein turnover, sequestration into photobodies, and interactions with other proteins (dimerization, heterodimerization, and competition) that affect PIF stability, binding to DNA and activity. Reading this review highlights the near ubiquity of PIFs in plant processes; guest appearances are made by key components of many other signaling pathways spanning the circadian clock to growth-regulatory hormones. Many researchers will have some familiarity with one or more PIF effects, but it’s particullarly useful to have them all described in one place for a birds-eye view of this important family of transcriptional regulators. (Summary by Mary Williams)  Physiol. Plant. 10.1111/ppl.13075