Entries by Raimund Nagel

A Bridge Between Kingdoms: Introduction of a Golden Gate-based Tool Kit for Cyanobacteria

One goal of synthetic biology is to build artificial pathways for bioengineering of high value compounds. To this end, pathways are not only split into individual reactions, but the expression of one enzyme is also split into individual parts (e.g., promotors, ribosomal binding sites, coding sequences, and terminators) that are used to optimize flux through […]

Moonlighting Enzymes: How Often Are We Missing Secondary Functions?

We think of enzymes as highly specific catalysts that carry out one reaction and show nearly absolute substrate specificity. However, absolute specificity is the exception, not the rule, as most enzymes accept several structurally similar substrates. Moreover, many enzymes catalyze alternative reactions and, in some cases, even perform functions that are best described as nonenzymatic […]

MicroProteins as the First Step toward a Master Key for Posttranslational Regulation

Determining the function of a gene often relies on transgenic plants with altered transcriptional or translational levels. This is usually achieved through overexpression, knockout, or knockdown. However, each of these approaches has specific advantages and drawbacks. For instance, knockouts, which can be created through CRISPR-Cas9 technology, support complete loss-of-function approaches. These, therefore, are inadequate for […]