Plant vascular tissues continue to proliferate post-embryogenesis via the cambium, a lateral meristem. Until recently the transcription factors regulating meristem maintenance and promoting differentiation were still unknown. In this paper, Zhang et al. identified multiple transcription factors using global transcriptomics of cambium-specific tissue harvested using fluorescent activated cell sorting. Using differential analysis, multiple transcriptional factors belonging to the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX and KNOX family members among others were identified. Using transcriptional fusion with the cis-regulatory sequence the expression pattern of these regulators was determined, and altered radial growth along with cell count changes suggested an important role of these transcription factors. Gene network analysis based on transcriptomic data and cambial phenotypes of higher-order mutant suggests multiple pathways mediated by these transcription factors to regulate vascular cell proliferation through cambial cells. (Summary by Suresh Damodaran). Nature Plants 10.1038/s41477-019-0522-9.