Review: Rapid long-distance signaling with Ca2+, ROS and electrical signals ($)

There is ample evidence for rapid, long-distance communication within plants, but our understanding of how these signals are transmitted is incomplete. Choi et al. review recent advances in intercellular signal propagation via Ca2+, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and electrical signals; these “fast” signals are contrasted to the “slow” signals such as jasmonates that accumulate and propagate much more slowly. They address questions such as: How do signals move quickly between cells (~400 – >1000 μm/s)? Do they travel through the apoplast or symplast, and how do plasmodesmata contribute to signal travel? What effect does the cell wall have on signal movement? Which tissues do long-distance signals move through? How are signals decoded, and how do the three signals interact? Plant J.  10.1111/tpj.13492