Entries by Daniel Czerny

Flowering time in banana (Musa spp.), a day neutral plant, is controlled by at least three FLOWERING LOCUS T homologues

Flowering time is regulated by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), its paralog TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), and related proteins.  Banana (Musa spp.) is an economically-important day-neutral plant with a months-long vegetative phase prior to flowering.  The banana cultivar Grand Nain has 14 FT/TSF-like genes spread among its chromosomes.  Using qRT-PCR, expression of a subset of […]

Identification of putative substrates of SEC2, a chloroplast inner envelope translocase

Chloroplasts have evolved from photosynthetic bacteria, and genes necessary for chloroplast function have moved from the chloroplast to the nuclear genome of the host eukaryotic cell.  Proteins encoded by these genes are made in the cytosol and imported into the chloroplast using protein translocases.  Chloroplasts contain the characterized SEC1 and the recently-discovered SEC2 translocase systems.  […]

TOPLESS mediates brassinosteroid control of shoot boundaries and root meristem development in Arabidopsis thaliana

Shoot and root development in Arabidopsis thaliana are controlled by many factors, one of which is brassinosteroid (BR) signaling.  BR-responsive gene expression is controlled by the BES1 and BZR1 transcription factors.  Using its EAR domain, BES1 binds to the transcriptional repressor TOPLESS (TPL) to activate and repress genes.  Espinosa-Ruiz et al. show genetic evidence for […]

A Raf-like protein kinase BHP mediates blue light-dependent stomatal opening

How do stomata open in response to blue light?  Blue light is perceived by phototropin receptor kinases that activate BLUE LIGHT SIGNALING1 (BLUS1), type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1), and the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase.  Hayashi et al. screened a commercial kinase inhibitor library to identify the kinases that phosphorylate PM H+-ATPase in response to blue […]

Selective autophagy of BES1 mediated by DSK2 balances plant growth and survival

Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling promotes growth and development by regulating gene expression through the BES1 and BZR1 transcription factors.  Nolan et al. show how plants balance growth and stress tolerance by cross-talk between the BR and autophagy pathways. Under environmental stresses, BES1 is targeted for autophagic degradation by direct interaction with the autophagy receptor protein DSK2.  […]

Origin and evolution of transporter substrate specificity within the NPF family

Which arose first during evolution- a metabolite molecule or a transporter that could move it across a membrane?  Jørgensen et al. studied transporters for glucosinolate defense molecules in Brassicales species.  Glucosinolates are derived from the broad class of cyanogenic glucosides, and glucosinolates are transported by GTR H+/glucosinolate symporters of the NPF transporter family.  Phylogenetic analysis […]

1135 Arabidopsis genomes reveal global pattern of polymorphism

There are many accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana beyond the ecotypes predominantly used in research laboratories.  In this article, The 1001 Genomes Consortium describe a resource based on whole-genome sequencing of 1,135 A. thaliana genomes from Europe, North Africa, and North America.  This data set provides high-quality genomic data suitable for GWAS and population genetics studies.  […]

Mitochondrial dynamics during germination

A seed undergoes a dramatic transformation from dried tissues into a mature plant.  This change requires energy produced by oxidative metabolism, but dry seeds contain dormant promitochondria that need to be reactivated.  Paszkiewicz et al. use bioimaging tools for an in vivo analysis of seed mitochondria biogenesis.  Using a fluorescent dye to visualize the membrane […]