EIN3 and PIF3 form an interdependent module that represses chloroplast development in buried seedlings ($) (Plant Cell)

Photosynthesis is the fundamental process for plants to produce food. Beneath the soil there is an impairment of chloroplast development. In this article, Liu et al. identified that mechanical pressure works through the ethylene-responsive transcription factor EIN3, while light signaling is mediated via PIF3. In an interdependent manner, EIN3 and PIF3 inhibit the transcription of LHC (Light Harvesting Complex) genes in the presence of mechanical stress and the absence of light. In contrast, in the absence of mechanical stress and presence of light, EIN3 and PIF3 are degraded,  facilitating LHC expression. This study provides a mechanistic model for etioplast and chloroplast development in soil-buried condition and in the presence of light, respectively. (Summary by Arif Ashraf) Plant Cell 10.1105/tpc.17.00508