Entries by Sunita Pathak

Protein complex stoichiometry and expression dynamics of transcription factors modulate stem cell division (PNAS)

Stem cells are a group of undifferentiated cells that can divide and differentiate to form new organs. In Arabidopsis roots, the quiescent center (QC: the mitotically inactive group of cells) helps regulate the division of surrounding initials and maintain the stem cell fate. What makes the QC different from surrounding stem cells, and how does […]

Co‐catabolism of arginine and succinate drives symbiotic nitrogen fixation (Mol Sys Biol)

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a mutualistic relationship between plants and microbes in which plants supply fixed carbon to bacteria in exchange for nitrogen. During this process, the microbes use nitrogenase enzyme to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a plant-usable form, but the metabolic interaction between plants and microbes in maintaining this energy-intensive nitrogenase reaction remains an […]

Review: An extended root phenotype: the rhizosphere, its formation and impacts on plant fitness (Plant J.)

The rhizosphere is a continuous space for microbial colonization that comprises the rhizospheric soil, the rhizoplane (root surface), and the root endosphere, which is the apoplastic space in the root cortex. It is inhabited by unique populations of microorganisms, influenced by plant genotype and the surrounding soil organisms, and has a great impact on plant […]

A chemical elicitor, 4- fluorophenoxyacetic acid suppresses insect pest populations and increases crop yields (PNAS)

Plant strengtheners, synthetic chemical elicitors, have been shown to enhance plant resistance against various insect pests without toxic effects on the environment, but evidence is lacking for a significant increase in crop growth and yield after using these elicitors. To address this, Wang et al. studied 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid (4-FPA), which in rice fields infested with […]

Review: The bHLH network underlying plant shade-avoidance (Physiol. Plant.)

Shade avoidance is a complex phenomenon in which plants avoid shade by altering their developmental program in various ways including early flowering, hypocotyl elongation, and more. Many photoreceptors and transcription factors (TFs) are involved in regulating shade avoidance, including the bHLH (basic helix loop helix) TF family that comprises about 160 members in Arabidopsis. In […]

Nuclear-encoded synthesis of the D1 subunit of photosystem II increases photosynthetic efficiency and crop yield (Nature Plants)

Photosystem II (PSII) is a protein complex located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts that is involved in executing the initial reaction of photosynthesis in plants. When plants are exposed to extreme temperature conditions, PSII gets damaged. To repair the damage, one of the core proteins of PSII, the D1 protein, needs to be synthesized […]

Innovation, conservation, and repurposing of gene function in plant root cell type development (bioRxiv)

Roots have many specialized cells arranged in concentric circles that are functionally homologous among various plant species but with varying cell-type-specific developmental programs. To further understand these developmental programs, Kajala et al. performed TRAPseq (Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification of mRNA coupled with sequencing) to determine differentially expressed translatomes in 12 different cell-types of tomato root. […]

Subtilase activity in intrusive cells mediates haustorium maturation in parasitic plants (bioRxiv)

Parasitic plants develop unique structures called haustoria that penetrate into the host plant vasculature, from which they take nutrients. During this process, haustorial epidermal cells differentiate into specialized cells called intrusive cells, which eventually re-differentiate into a xylem bridge connected to the host vasculature. In Ogawa et al., the authors  identified differentially expressed genes in […]

Newly identified miRNAs may contribute to aerenchyma formation in sugarcane roots (Plant Direct)

Sugarcane is one of the major crops for sugar and ethanol production and has been successfully used for first generation ethanol production through sucrose fermentation, but second generation ethanol production, through cell wall depolymerization, is still limited. Aerenchyma formation in sugarcane root occurs through the digestion of cell walls but the process controlling it remains […]