REVIEW Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.) (Plant Cell Rep.) ($)

Apple  (Malus spp.) is an economically important tree that faces, like other crops cultured in temperate regions, remarkable challenges due to climate change such as abiotic (drought and salinity) and biotic (fungi, bacteria and aphids) stresses. For that, there is increasing need to preserve Malus genetic resources (wild and commercial varieties) with potentially valuable genes for future breeding programs. Cryopreservation is the storage of biological samples in liquid nitrogen and is considered a better option for long-term storage. Wang et al. review the existing options for cryopreservation of Malus germoplasm regarding starting materials (seeds, pollen, in vivo dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips/buds) and cryopreservation approaches (two-step freezings, droplet and vitrification), among others. (Summary by Isabel Mendoza)  Plant Cell Report 10.1007/s00299-018-2249-x