Whenever we talk about global trends there are of course local variations. Here, Piao et al. discuss recent trends of global greening, which is occurring at arctic as well as temperate and tropical regions. Overall, this greening is attributed to increasing atmospheric CO2, which promotes plant growth, but artic greening is also a consequence of rising temperatures. Human activities including tree planting (afforestation) and nitrogen deposition also contribute to greening, with varying degrees across the globe. The article also discusses the effects of increased greening on water cycles and global temperatures. (Summary by Mary Williams) Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. 10.1038/s43017-019-0001-x
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