Entries by Arif Ashraf

Membrane protein MHZ3 stabilizes OsEIN2 in rice by interacting with its Nramp-like domain (PNAS)

Much of the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway has been characterized from study of  the dicot Arabidopsis. In this study, Ma et al. have characterized the ethylene insensitive mutant mhz3 from rice. MHZ3 is a membrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that interacts with OsEIN2 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2). OsEIN2 contains a Nramp-like membrane-spanning domain and […]

Regulation of Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 endocytosis and ubiquitination ($) (PNAS)

BRI1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1) is a plasma-membrane localized brassinosteroid (BR) receptor that is endocytosed to internal membranes following BR binding. In this study, Zhou, Liu et al. provide a mechanistic model of BRI1 endocytosis through ubiquitination. They identified two E3 ubiquitin ligases, PUB12 and PUB13, responsible for the ubiquitination of BRI1. Additionally, they showed through a […]

The auxin-regulated CrRLK1L kinase ERULUS controls cell wall composition during root hair tip growth ($) (Curr Biol)

Root hair outgrowth requires the plant hormone auxin and polarized tip growth and cell wall deposition. Schoenaers et al. showed that the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase ERULUS (ERU) regulates tip growth in root hairs. ERU is regulated by auxin via ARF7 and ARF19 transcription factors, which directly bind to the promoter of ERU. The function […]

A computational framework for cortical microtubule dynamics in realistically shaped plant cells (PLOS Comp Biol)

Plant growth and development consist of highly organized cellular patterns and depend on the directional growth and orientation of cells. Understanding microtubule dynamics is key to deciphering the formation of cellular shape and growth direction. In this research, Chakrabortty  et al. employed analytical and computational modeling approaches to simulate microtubule dynamics. They used confocal images […]

Gibberellin DELLA signaling targets the retromer complex to redirect protein trafficking to the plasma membrane (PNAS)

Gibberellins including gibberellic acid (GA) are plant hormones required for growth and development. GA has been reported to regulate tropic responses by modulating plasma membrane localization of PIN auxin transporters. In this study, Salanenka et al. focused on the mechanism of GA-mediated protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. They showed that low levels of GA […]

Distinct sets of tethering complexes, SNARE complexes, and Rab GTPases mediate membrane fusion at the vacuole in Arabidopsis (PNAS)

In plant cells, vacuoles store and degrade wastes including proteins. Vacuolar targeting and fusion by endosomes are specified by SNARE complexes at the membrane. In this study, Takemoto et al. studied the function of two tethering complexes, HOPS (Homotypic fusion and Protein Sorting) and CORVET (Class C core vacuole/endosome tethering), that had previously not been […]

Ethylene receptors signal via a noncanonical pathway to regulate abscisic acid responses ($) (Plant Physiol.)

The two-carbon containing gaseous hydrocarbon, ethylene, is one of the most important phytohormones. It is perceived by a set of receptors (ETR1, ETR2, ERS, ERS2, EIN4). Bakshi et al. found that ETR1 (etr1-6) and ETR2 (etr2-3) mutants have opposite effects on seed germination in the presence of NaCl, KCl, ethanol, CuSO4, and ZnSO4. In the […]

EIN3 and PIF3 form an interdependent module that represses chloroplast development in buried seedlings ($) (Plant Cell)

Photosynthesis is the fundamental process for plants to produce food. Beneath the soil there is an impairment of chloroplast development. In this article, Liu et al. identified that mechanical pressure works through the ethylene-responsive transcription factor EIN3, while light signaling is mediated via PIF3. In an interdependent manner, EIN3 and PIF3 inhibit the transcription of […]

BES1 and BZR1 redundantly promote phloem and xylem differentiation ($) (Plant Cell Physiol.)

In vascular development, procambial or cambial cells differentiate into xylem and phloem. In this research article, by using VISUAL (Vascular cell Induction culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves) system, Saito et al. identified BES1 (BRI1 EMS SUPPRESSOR 1) as one of the components required for xylem differentiation. They found that BES1 also positively regulates phloem differentiation […]