Recent Posts

Gravitropism with a pinch of salt: Changes in cell wall composition modulate root growth direction in saline conditions

Soil salinization causes massive yield losses in agriculture, and its impact on plants goes beyond what our eyes can see. Roots are immediately affected by the direct exposure to a salt-(NaCl) rich substrate. Here, Zou et al. investigate the salt-induced altered root gravitropic responses in Arabidopsis…

RALF4 prevents pollen tubes from growing crazy

Pollen tubes are characterized by extremely fast elongation growth. Previously, small peptides known as RALFs (RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTORs) were identified as signaling peptides, some with a role in pollen tube growth; for instance, RALF4/19 are important in maintaining the cell wall integrity of pollen…

CPK32 regulates cellulose biosynthesis through post-translational modification of cellulose synthase

Cellulose in one of the most abundant polymers on the planet and is synthesized by plasma membrane-bound cellulose synthases (CESAs). Phosphorylation plays a role in CESA regulation, however the kinases which catalyse the phosphorylation are not well described. Here Xin et al. identified calcium-dependent…

Hydrolyzable tannins are incorporated into the endocarp of water caltrop

Trapa natans, also known as water caltrop or bat nut, is an aquatic plant with large seeds encased by a hardened endocarp. Due to this durable endocarp, these seeds may remain dormant underwater for up to 12 years. Huss et al. studied the anatomical and biochemical factors responsible for the hardened…

Update: Callose synthesis in plant development – an evolutionary insight

Callose is a polysaccharide with amorphous, gel-like properties that often serves as a transient matrix in plant cell walls. Callose deposition at plasmodesmata can regulate the movement of molecules between cells, transient callose deposition in phloem sieve elements occurs in response to stress, callose…

Point mutations in the catalytic domain disrupt cellulose synthase vesicle trafficking and protein dynamics

Cellulose is an important and useful biopolymer, present in plant cell walls and synthesized at the plasma membrane by protein complexes called cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) composed of multimers of cellulose synthase (CESA). CESAs are embedded in the membrane and move along the membrane as they…

Review: Not only turgor can shape plant growth!

Cell wall tensile stress and turgor pressure are two important determinants of cell growth. Turgor pressure has been regarded as a passive contributor, however recent evidence reviewed by Ali et al. suggests that turgor is an emergent property that determines growth. Wall stress and turgor pressure are…

TTL bridges microtubules and cellulose synthase complexes

Cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes (CSCs) synthesize the main polysaccharide component of plant primary cell wall, cellulose. The trafficking and dynamics of CSC are tightly regulated. Kesten et al. identified a new family of CSC- and microtubule-interacting proteins, named TETRATRICOPEPTIDE THIOREDOXIN-LIKE…

Review: The cell biology of primary cell walls during salt stress (Plant Cell)

Salt is a massive problem for most land plants. At the macroscopic level, excess soil salinity can cause stunting or death. At the molecular / cellular level, salinity causes both osmotic and ionic challenges that affect membrane homeostasis, molecular interactions, and protein stability. A new review…