Nitrogen (N) is a main constituent of amino acids and nucleotides and therefore plays a central role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Plants are able to take up nitrogen from the soil in two forms, nitrate and ammonium. Nitrate is the predominant form of nitrogen found in most crop soils. This review paper focuses on understanding the complex mechanisms underlying nitrate signaling, regulation, and interaction with hormones. This paper includes very detailed and colorful graphics that provide a visual overview of how nitrate is taken up by roots, loaded/unloaded by xylem and phloem, and transported to leaves, shoots, and seeds in Arabidopsis.
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